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Original drawing1

First one of my useless crappy edits from this afternoon s class because I got bored.

Double edit. It started at just Trip s hair, and then I did Virus s glasses too. Two versions because on one I put their original (supposed) eye colour, and on the other I let their current eye colour.

From the NIAID flickr, a colored scanning electron micrograph of Ebola.2

Colorized scanning electron micrograph of filamentous Ebola virus particles budding from a chronically infected VERO E6 cell (35,000x magnification).

  • Virus & Trip (DRAMAtical Murder) Request
  • iPhone 5/S/C
  • Renders aren t mine, owners mentioned in the pictures captions (All renders taken from DeviantArt & Tumblr)
  • Please like or reblog if you use this

Yet another stunning victory in the drug battle against the liver-damaging hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be in the offing: A small study suggests it may be possible to cure some people of their infections in as few as 3 weeks.

Fresh on the heels of recent approvals of four new combinations of HCV drugs that clear infections of many different types of the virus in about 3 months, a team led by hepatologist George Lau of the Humanity & Healthy GI and Liver Centre in Hong Kong, China, has mixed and matched various compounds to see whether they could further shorten the route to a cure.

Following 3 weeks of treatment, 18 HCV infected people given three different combinations of drugs met the standard definition of being cured at 12 weeks after treatment began, they had no signs of HCV s genetic material, RNA, in their blood on standard tests. The researchers plan to present this data publicly for the first time at a scientific conference known as The Liver Meeting3 in 2 weeks.

Some rough paper sketches.
I m trying to find a nice desing for gem!Virus and gem!Trip.

Also I tried a fusion

sorry for the bad quality pics.

Types of vaccination

Today I thought I d write about the different types of vaccination available and why you may choose to use each one.

Just to recap, vaccines work by deliberately exposing an animal to a safe version of a pathogen/ antigen in order to generate an immune response, causing them to produce antibodies and memory cells ready for if they encounter the pathogen again. Two words not to get mixed up in this post are antigen and antibody.

An antigen is a protein on a pathogen that elicits an immune response whereas an antibody is a protein produced by the immune system to counteract the antigen/ pathogen s effects. There are two main brackets of vaccination, passive and active.

Passive immunity is seen naturally when mothers pass on their antibodies to their young be that through the placenta as seen in humans, or through milk and colostrum as seen in most veterinary species. We can utilise passive immunity to treat certain diseases.

Antibodies can be collected from an immune individual and transferred to a non-immune animal to provide immediate, short-lasting protection. This type of immunisation lasts a few months maximum and is used in situations where there s a high risk of infection and insufficient time for the body to generate its own response. An example would be a horse, not vaccinated for tetanus, with a cut leg.

Injecting the site with antibodies derived from an immunised horse s blood serum means that the animal has antibodies at the site of infection ready to fight off tetanus specific pathogens. This technique is also used in animals suffering from snake bites.

Another veterinary use of passive immunisation is to exploit maternally derived antibodies. Here you vaccinate the mother against organisms likely to infect her offspring.

She then generates an immune response and, once her offspring are born, the antibodies generated are passed on to them through her milk. In cows this is often done 3-12 weeks prior to their calving due date, protecting the calves from rotavirus, corona virus and certain pathogenic strains of E. coli.

Active immunisation is the one most commonly seen in practice.

It provides immunisation that is more long term than the passive approach however has a delay in onset as the immune system formulates its response. I m going to briefly talk about the 6 main types of active immunisation.

A killed vaccine is formed from a pathogen that has been treated (either by chemicals or radiation) to ensure that it can no longer replicate inside the host. This means that it still elicits a response, as the pathogen retains the same form and antigens as its live counterpart, however the immune response may be weaker as the pathogen isn t multiplying.

Killed vaccines often have to be administered at least twice (3-4 weeks apart) to generate immunity, and are often mixed with adjuvant. Adjuvants are chemicals or microbial components that aid the vaccine in generating a response. Oily substances can be added to ensure the antigen in the vaccine is slowly distributed to the lymph nodes, instead of in one big wave, leading to a greater response due to longer exposure of the node to the antigen.

An example is the Nobivac Rabies vaccination.

Modified live (attenuated) vaccines are live strains of the pathogen mutated to have very low virulence. This means they can infect and replicate within the host without causing disease. These strains can be derived from culturing the pathogen in unfavourable environments and using the strains that mutate to suit this environment in the vaccine.

An example could be growing a virus in an environment that is 35 degrees instead of 37. Those that mutate and evolve to thrive at this temperature can then be used inside the body where they are no longer fully adapted to live at 37 degrees. As technology has advanced we can now directly change the pathogen s genome to ensure they are less pathogenic.

This technique is being used to create live bacterial vaccines, as most of the current available live vaccines are against viruses. The Nobivac Parvo-C vaccine uses a live, attenuated form of canine parvovirus. These vaccines usually don t contain an adjuvant and can be given as a single dose once the animal is over 12 weeks old.

Subunit vaccines use specific antigens selected from the pathogen.

This requires isolating and purifying the protein required. This can be done by growing the microbe in a laboratory then using a chemical to break away the antigen. Another approach is to use recombinant DNA technology, creating bacteria that express the protein as one of its genes.

This protein can then be collected and purified. The immune responses created to this vaccine are very specific which can lead to less side effects. Downsides are again that the responses aren t as strong as a live vaccine so the vaccines commonly need to be re-administered 3-4 weeks later.

A toxoid vaccine is aimed at bacterial infections where the bacteria produce harmful endotoxins causing their pathogenic effects.

Toxoids are an inactivate form of this toxin retaining the same structure. This means that when injected, the body creates antibodies that neutralise the effects of the toxin, educating the immune system to its structure ready for if the animal becomes infected.

The next two vaccines are very clever. They use a technique in which the DNA of the pathogen that encodes for antigens is inserted in to the cells of the animal.

The cells read the DNA and generate the proteins that the DNA codes for. Once this protein is produced the cells recognise it as foreign and present it on their surfaces for the immune system to see, eliciting a response and forming antibodies. This can be via a DNA vaccine where the DNA alone or in a bacterial plasmid vector is inserted in the body to be taken up by cells, or through a recombinant viral vaccine where the genes are cloned in to a viral vector which enters the cells as a normal virus does, causing the DNA to be replicated.

There is a vaccine called ONCEPT canine melanoma, the website is linked here, which uses this DNA technology to target malignant melanoma tumours. The DNA is derived from humans and transcribes the human version of the deficient protein. This is foreign enough for the canine body to elicit an immune response, however similar enough for the antibodies to also attack the canine version of the protein, expressed in the cancer causing cells.

Interesting stuff! The vaccine is administered trans-dermally (through the skin) using a device that fires the DNA vaccine particles at high pressure through the skin of the thigh!

There s so much more I could say about vaccines but it ll have to wait for another day as this post has already got quite long!

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Significant progress has been made in antiviral therapeutics over the last decade and as a result the importance of timely and accurate viral diagnostics has increased.

Recently, a new non-invasive technique using atomic force microscopy5 has been introduced to identify and study viruses based on their electrostatic6 interactions. Researchers have found that the electrostatic charge on the surface of a virus is dependent on the protein shell of the virus and on the contained genetic material. The electrostatic charge therefore serves as a unique signature for diagnostics.

By absorbing different viral particles onto a graphite surface their individual levels of attraction towards a charged probe can be measured, and thus their electrostatic charge can be calculated, giving insight into the structure and identity of the virus. Pictured are protein shells of the virus bacteriophage T77 the charged probe is positioned above to measure the attraction to the tip.

Written by Helen Thomas

Scientists in recent years have made great progress in characterizing the bacterial population that normally lives on human skin and contributes to health and disease. Now researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine8 at the University of Pennsylvania have used state-of-the-art techniques to survey the skin s virus population, or virome.

The study, published in the online journal mBio9 last month, reveals that most DNA viruses on healthy human skin are viral dark matter that have never been described before. The research also includes the development of a set of virome analysis tools that are now available to researchers for further investigations.

Geoffrey D. Hannigan, Jacquelyn S.

Meisel, Amanda S. Tyldsley, Qi Zheng, Brendan P. Hodkinson, Adam J.

SanMiguel, Samuel Minot, Frederic D. Bushman, Elizabeth A. Grice.

The Human Skin Double-Stranded DNA Virome: Topographical and Temporal Diversity, Genetic Enrichment, and Dynamic Associations with the Host Microbiome. mBio, 2015; 6 (5): e01578-15 DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01578-1510

Image
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Okay but imagine that it s the morning and as usual, Virus has trouble waking up (well actually he doesn t at all), so Trip enters his room as usual and starts saying something like

Hello princess, it s time to wake up ~

And Virus is mumbling something like The princess tells you to go fuck yourself (I can imagine that Virus is everything but polite when he wakes up)

And Trip just keeps smiling like Ooooh, that sort of language doesn t suit a pretty princess ! You gotta say something like yes dear Trip, I ll be ready in a second honey ~

And it just irritates Virus so much that he s like GoddammitTrip just wait a moment that I wake up I m going to beat you up and strangle you and kill you and then throw your corpse into the sea so I can eat shushis made with shrimps fed up with your stupid corpse and I ll finally be at peace !

And Trip is just like

Sounds nice !

I m in.

But it still doesn t suit a princess

And then Trip received a pillow in the face.

(Spoiler : At the end of the day, Trip didn t feed the shrimps of Midorijima s bay, and Virus just woke up and took his breakfast his dear Trip prepared for him)

Animage (09/1997) – a short preview for Virus (Virus Buster Serge) on Sega Saturn. It was also adapted into an anime TV series by J.C.Staff the same year.

When a classmate knows what you re drawing, then they re probably as gay as you

#tbt

It s the intense fatigue that leaves me motionless, it s waking up in the morning feeling like my body is giving up and dying, muscle, joint and nerve pain, body weakness, random nerve numbness, rashes and hair loss that make me feel ashamed, food (besides chicken broth and jello) feels like it s tearing up my intestines, new food allergies that the virus decides to reject, chest pain, heart palpitations, and rapid heart beat because the virus is in my heart, thyroid numbers that are never consistent, why two years ago I was 90 pounds, brain fog that leaves me unable to think, stuttering, unable to follow conversations, and making me feel like I m in a dream, and the fact this this list was cut short and is still growing, is why we need a cure for Lyme disease.
Lyme disease is more than what meets the eye. It s considered a stealth virus which means it can enter and take over every bodily system.
This disease is a nightmare and I wouldn t wish it on my worst enemy.

Please educate yourself and donate to this cause by visiting http://lymediseasechallenge.org/12 and participate in the #LymeDiseaseChallenge

This was supposed to be a continuation of my dancer virus headcanon, and I originally planned to draw more of Virus teaching Trip to dance, and eventually them dancing together, but for some reasons I don t think I will.

Still have this (he s showing him how to place his feet properly)13

Gone Adrift: Incubator page 2

These tumblr viruses are getting annoying as hell.

I can t go through a day without them popping up in my inbox or following me.

References

  1. ^ Original drawing (dmmdresources.tumblr.com)
  2. ^ From the NIAID flickr, a colored scanning electron micrograph of Ebola. (www.flickr.com)
  3. ^ The Liver Meeting (www.aasld.org)
  4. ^ http://mavinstore.ecrater.com/ (mavinstore.ecrater.com)
  5. ^ atomic force microscopy (en.wikipedia.org)
  6. ^ electrostatic (en.wikipedia.org)
  7. ^ bacteriophage T7 (en.wikipedia.org)
  8. ^ Perelman School of Medicine (www.med.upenn.edu)
  9. ^ mBio (mbio.asm.org)
  10. ^ 10.1128/mBio.01578-15 (dx.doi.org)
  11. ^ Image (www.sciencenews.org)
  12. ^ http://lymediseasechallenge.org/ (lymediseasechallenge.org)
  13. ^ dancer virus headcanon (just-themys-fanarts.tumblr.com)

See the original article here:
virus Tumblr

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